1.) Males can get HPV and spread it to females.
2.) Males can get HPV to other Males.
2.) By giving Gardasil to me we might be able to lower the rates of lung cancer cause by oral contact of a sexual nature.
4.) HPV can cause lesions which are perfect doorways for diseases like HIV.
5.) We might be able lower the rate of colon cancer in people who have anal sex.
Data on HPV
What is HPV?
HPV is short for human papilloma (pap-uh-LO-mah) virus. HPVs are a group of over 100 related viruses. Each HPV virus in the group is given a number, which is called an HPV type. HPVs are called papilloma viruses because some of the HPV types cause warts, or papillomas, which are non-cancerous tumors. The papilloma viruses are attracted to and are able to live only in squamous epithelial cells in the body. Squamous epithelial cells are thin, flat cells that are found on the surface of the skin, cervix, vagina, anus, vulva, head of the penis, mouth, and throat. HPVs will not grow in other parts of the body.
Of the more than 100 strains of HPV, about 60 HPV types cause warts on non-genital skin, such as on the hands and feet. These are the common warts.
The other 40 HPV types are mucosal types of HPV. "Mucosal" refers to the body’s mucous membranes, or the moist skin-like layers that line organs and cavities of the body that open to the outside. For example, the vagina and anus have a moist skin-like layer. The mucosal HPV types are also called the genital (or anogenital) type HPVs because they typically affect the anal and genital area. The mucosal HPVs prefer the moist squamous cells found in this area. They do not prefer the skin of the hands and feet.
Some types of genital HPVs can cause cauliflower-shaped warts to appear on or around the genitals and anus of both men and women. In women, visible warts may also appear on the cervix and vagina. This type of "genital wart" is known technically as condyloma acuminatum and is most often caused by HPV-6 or HPV-11. Because these genital warts rarely develop into cancer, HPV-6 and HPV-11 are called "low-risk" viruses. These low-risk types can also cause low-grade cervix cell changes that do not develop into cancer.
Other genital type HPVs have been linked with genital or anal cancers in both men and women. They also cause low and high-grade cervix cell changes and pre-cancers. These are called "high-risk" HPV types and include HPV-16, HPV-18, HPV-31, HPV -35, HPV-39, HPV-45, HPV-51, HPV-52, and HPV-58, as well as some others.
How do you get HPV?
Genital HPV is transmitted mainly by direct genital contact during vaginal or anal intercourse. It is not spread through bodily fluids, nor does it live in blood, or any organs.
Infection is very common soon after a woman becomes sexually active. In one recent study, more than 50% of college age women were found to have acquired an HPV infection within 4 years of first having sex.
Transmission by genital contact without intercourse is not common, but infection has been reported in women who did not have a history of intercourse. Oral-genital and hand-genital transmission of some genital HPV types is possible and has been reported. Transmission from mother to newborn during delivery is rare. When it occurs, it can lead to development of warts in the infant’s throat called respiratory papillomatosis.
How common is HPV? Who gets it?
Genital HPV is a very common virus. Some doctors think it is almost as common as the common cold virus. In the United States, over 6 million people (men and women) get an HPV infection every year. Almost half of the infections are in people between 15 and 25 years of age. About one-half to three-fourths of the people who have ever had sex will have HPV at some time in their life.
What are the symptoms of HPV?
Genital HPV usually has no symptoms, unless it is a type that causes genital warts. Genital warts may occur within weeks or months after contact with a partner who has HPV. More rarely, genital warts may occur years after exposure.
Most people will never know they have HPV because they have no symptoms and the body's immune system causes the virus to become inactive. A small percentage of people with HPV will have the virus for a longer time and will develop cell changes that over many years may lead to cervical or other genital or anal cancers.
How is HPV related to cervical cancer?
Almost all (more than 99 %) cervical cancers are related to HPV. Of these, about 70% are caused by HPV types 16 or 18. About 500,000 pre-cancerous cell changes of the cervix, vagina, and vulva are diagnosed each year in the United States, and over half are related to HPV 16 and 18. Low-grade cervix cell changes are caused by a variety of HPV types, including 16, 18, 6, or 11.
Although nearly all cervical cancers are related to HPV, most genital HPV infections do not cause cervical cancer. Most people who test positive for genital HPV DNA in research studies eventually test negative, often within 6 to 12 months. Scientists are still not sure whether this means that a person’s immune system has completely destroyed all of the HPV or has only suppressed the infection to an extremely low level (too low to be detected by available tests). If even a few cells of the cervix still contain HPV, it's possible that the virus may start to become active again if your immune system becomes very weakened.
It is possible that some low-grade cervix cell changes and some high-grade cervix cell changes may suddenly occur many years after first HPV exposure. This could help explain how a woman could get such changes after many years of normal Pap tests and no history of a partner change.
If cells stay infected with HPV, the virus may cause cervix cells to change and become pre-cancer cells. True pre-cancer cell changes are called high-grade SIL (squamous intraepithelial lesions), sometimes abbreviated as HSIL. Another term for HSIL is CIN 2 and CIN3. CIN is an abbreviation for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia.
Pre-cancer cells are not cancer. Although some pre-cancer changes may return to normal on their own, most cases of CIN 3 are likely to progress to cervical cancer over a period of time that probably takes about 10 years if not detected and treated. But very few HPV infections lead to cervical cancer. Pre-cancer cells are found by having regular Pap tests.
For more information on cervical cancer, please see the American Cancer Society document, Cervical Cancer.
What about other cancers and HPV?
Many anal cancers are caused by the same types of genital HPV that cause cervical cancer. A little less than half of cancers of the vulva are HPV-related. Several other genital cancers (cancers of the penis, vagina, and urethra) and some head and neck cancers (specifically of the tongue and tonsils) may be related to the high-risk types of HPV. Also, a high portion of skin cancers in people with weakened immune systems might be related to this virus.
What about other HPV-related diseases?
Over 500,000 new cases of anal and genital warts are diagnosed yearly in the United States, and about 9 out of 10 of these are caused by two specific HPV types.
Do men have the kinds of cancers that are related to HPV?
HPV is probably as common in men as in women. But HPV is not as easily diagnosed in men as in women. Genital HPV is passed to men through vaginal and anal sex -- the same way it is in women. Some types of HPV have been linked to cancer of the penis and anus in men. Although cancer of the penis is rare, anal cancer is now almost as common in men and women who have anal sex as cervical cancer was in women before the Pap test was introduced.
http://www.cancer.org/docroot/CRI/conte ... ccines.asp
A newly published study links the sexually transmitted human papillomavirus, or HPV, to lung cancer, adding lungs to the list of organs scientists say are susceptible to cancer as a result of contracting the most common sexually transmitted infection in the United States.
Recent studies have found connections between HPV and cancers of the mouth and throat, but the University of Louisville study released late last week is the first to associate the infection with lung cancer.
HPV has long been known to result in cancers of the sex organs, particularly the cervix, and a vaccine targeting young women and girls was introduced in the United States in 2006.
Conservative parents and activists have condemned the vaccine, marketed under the name Gardasil, since it was approved by the Food and Drug Administration last year, claiming it would -- like easily available condoms -- encourage young people to engage in promiscuous sex.
Those same parents and groups say the news showing a link between the virus and lung cancer, which means it could affect not only their daughters but also their sons, does not change their opposition to the drug.
At a conference this week in Geneva, Dr. Arash Rezazadeh from the University of Louisville presented the findings of the study, which found HPV in six out of 23 lung cancer samples.
"The researchers found six samples that tested positive for the presence of human papillomavirus, the virus that also causes many cases of cervical cancer. One was later shown to be a cervical cancer that had spread to the lungs," read a statement from the First European Lung Cancer Conference.
All the samples came from smokers, and authors of the study said smoking remains the most important factor in the development of lung cancer. But "the fact that five out of 22 non-small-cell lung cancer samples were HPV-positive supports the assumption that HPV contributes to the development of non-small-cell lung cancer," they said.
"We think HPV has a role as a co-carcinogen which increases the risk of cancer in a smoking population," Rezazadeh said in a statement.
Rezazadeh was in Switzerland for the conference and unavailable for comment.
According to the Centers for Diseases Control and Prevention, some 20 million Americans are infected with HPV, and another 6.2 million become newly infected every year. Some strains of the disease result in genital warts, but other strains can, over time, develop into cancer.
The American Cancer Society estimates that in 2008, 11,070 women will be diagnosed with cervical cancer in the United States.
Other HPV-related cancers include vulva, vaginal, penile and anal.
Though the study is the first to note the combined effects of smoking and HPV on the lungs, doctors have known for a while that women who smoke and contract HPV are more likely to develop cervical cancer than nonsmokers, said Dr. Lauren F. Streicher, an OB/GYN and professor at Northwestern Medical School.
"Smoking plays a key role in the rate of conversion to malignancy in cervical cancer too," she said. "Seventy to 80 percent of women are exposed to HPV, but less than 1 percent of women get cervical cancer. We know lesions on the cervix are more likely to become cancerous in smokers."
HPV is generally contracted through the skin during sex. With the exception of the one lung cancer sample that originated with cervical cancer, the mechanism by which the lungs became infected was not clear from the study.
Though the Louisville study does not discuss the efficacy of the HPV vaccine in treating lung cancer, the vaccine targets the same cancer-causing type of the virus found in the lung cancer samples -- type 16.
"Type 16 is the one that causes cancer," Streicher said. "As more of these studies are completed, we're learning that the vaccine would clearly be preventive in many different kinds of cancers, not just cervical."
Though the vaccine has been approved by the FDA, and according to Streicher, "is grounded in solid science," many conservative parents have opposed giving the vaccine to their preteen and teenage daughters, the target group for the vaccine.
"We don't need to be vaccinating children against something that can be prevented with a behavior change," said Kimberly Martinez, executive director of the Abstinence Clearinghouse, a nonprofit group that advocates teaching children not to have sex rather than to have safe sex.
"We have to teach kids values and boundaries," she said. "If you give kids the vaccine, you're giving them a license to go have sex. It's like if you teach a kid to use a condom, you know what they're going to do with it," she said.
Maria McKnight, a mother of two from Tea, S.D., said the risk of lung cancer, like the risk of cervical cancer, does not change her opposition to vaccinating her 7-year-old daughter.
"HPV is completely 100 percent preventable. I don't see the point of putting her through the risk of the vaccine," she said. "In the same way I protect my kids from lung cancer by teaching them not to smoke or do drugs, I can protect them from HPV by teaching them not to have sex."
"I'd love to see cervical cancer wiped off the planet," she said. "I've watched someone die of lung cancer and would love to see that gone too. But we're talking about stopping a sexually transmitted disease. Stopping the behavior is the best way to stop the disease."
If HPV is increasingly linked with other forms of cancer and the vaccine becomes available to boys, McKnight said she would not give her 11-year-old son the vaccine for the same reasons.
Some parents remain opposed to the vaccine, citing side effects and fears that it has not been tested thoroughly enough to know its long-term effects. When the vaccine was initially introduced, some states attempted to pass legislation making it required for children to enter school. Only Virginia has passed a law mandating the vaccine, which will go into effect next October.
Physicians who advocate for the vaccine said concerns about premarital sex should not trump health.
"Whether or not HPV is associated with sex is irrelevant," Streicher said. "Anyone opposed to the vaccine doesn't understand it, or has an agenda. The vaccine is grounded in solid science."